2022 - "2022 - "the Epoch of the People with Arkadag"
Petrochemistry is an industry with a great future

Petrochemistry is one of the developed industries and includes the production of synthetic materials and products based on the processing of oil and natural gas. Hydrocarbons are the main raw materials here. The differences of this industry from others are the high rates of development, regular increase in production efficiency, the introduction of new methods and technologies and the development of samples of innovative equipment that can be observed on the example of the annually modernized production facilities of the Turkmenbashi complex of oil refineries (TCOR) and its structural unit – the Seydi oil refinery (SOR). 

Expanding the range and increasing the volume of produced petroleum products is one of the important tasks set by the President before the country’s petrochemists. New environmentally friendly products manufactured in recent years as a result of the introduction of advanced world practices at the TCOR testify to the successful solution of the tasks set. 

It was gratifying to set up the production of A-98 gasoline from the first days of the year “The Era of the People with Arkadag”, which meets the K5 environmental requirements and EURO-6 quality standards, as evidenced by the certificates of Saybolt International Laboratory Company from the Netherlands. Last summer, the production of jet fuel of a new Jet A-1 brand, used in gas turbine engines of civil aviation aircraft in Europe, the USA and Canada, including Airbus and Boeing airliners, was launched. The production of wrapping polypropylene of various thickness and previously imported aviation gasoline for AN-2 single-engine aircraft, which are widely used in the agricultural industry, all served as an incentive to strengthen the national economy. 

At the auctions of the State Commodity and Raw Materials Exchange of Turkmenistan, held in July this year, deals on the sale of the first volumes of the new A-98 gasoline produced at the complex of plants to world markets were concluded. The first batches of this type of oil product were purchased by companies from the United Arab Emirates and Afghanistan. By the way, the high-quality petrochemical products of the TCOR are exported to a number of countries in Europe, Asia and the Middle East.  

Petrochemistry is a sector of the chemical industry, which includes chemical processing of hydrocarbon resources (oil fractions, natural and associated gas). The rapid development of petrochemical production in the world falls on the early 20th century. Its growth rate over 30 years of the last century can be estimated from the volume of world production: in 1950 – 3 million tons, in 1960 – 11 million tons, in 1970 – 40 million tons and in 1980 – 100 million tons. In the 1990s, petrochemical products accounted for more than half of the production of organic substances, that is, more than one-third of the production of the chemical industry as a whole. 

Over the past decades, the extraction of hydrocarbons from the depths of the earth has become one of the most important sectors of the industry aimed at the extraction of minerals. Issues related to the production of petroleum products have come to the forefront, at least because of the active use of vehicles running on traditional brands of fuel. However, oil production is not limited to this. Depending on the complex composition of oil and petroleum products, rubber, plastics, solvents, fertilizers, even medicines and foodstuffs are produced. Petrochemistry is engaged in the synthesis of raw materials for the manufacture of petroleum products. 

The formation of modern petrochemistry is associated with a deep study of the composition, structure and properties of hydrocarbons. Crude oil is not used in the oil industry as it is extracted from wells, but is transported by tankers or pipelines to the refinery. Depending on the formation, the composition of oil is complex, and therefore has varieties. Each of the varieties, depending on the density and boiling point, is divided into several fractions, which allows you to determine the methods of its processing and the volume of the final product from a particular fraction. 

Petrochemicals include three classes of substances: hydrocarbons, sulfur compounds and naphthenic acid. The main raw materials in this sector of industry are hydrocarbons, which are divided into several groups. The simplest in composition are methane, ethane, propane and butane. The last three of them are paraffins, which are processed into olefins as a result of cracking. The simplest aromatic hydrocarbons include benzene, toluene and xylene. Through processing methane, methanol, ammonia and methyl chloride compounds are extracted, from which, in turn, antifreeze, ammonia fertilizers, acids and solvents are produced. Also, polymers, solvents and chemical fibers are produced from ethylene or ethyl alcohol obtained by splitting hydrocarbons. Other products that are raw materials for the production of fuels, lubricating oils, solvents and explosives are obtained through complex chemical reactions. 

Most of the technological processes of oil and gas processing are aimed at separating raw materials into fractions, then at manufacturing finished or semi-finished products. To date, one of the most widespread methods is cracking, as well as a combination of different processing technologies. 
It is very difficult to imagine the modern petrochemical industry without catalysts. In addition to a significant reduction in energy costs, many processes are completely impossible to carry out without them. For example, thermally cracked gasoline is produced through high-temperature processing of oil and its fractions using silica-alumina catalysts. 

The petrochemical industry produces a wide range of goods that are essential for the development and sustainability of many industrial sectors. The TCOR has mastered the manufacture of all types of oil refining and petrochemical products that meet environmental standards. High-octane unleaded gasoline, aviation kerosene, technical and lighting kerosene, liquefied hydrocarbon gas, various types of diesel fuel, dozens of types of oils, polypropylene, petroleum coke, high-quality road and construction bitumen and low-sulfur fuel oil are the main types of products made at the Enterprise. 

To date, in order to reduce harmful emissions in the process of petrochemical production at the maximum level, a modern waste-free technology has been developed in world practice, the basic principle of which is that all substances and components obtained as a result of the splitting of hydrocarbons are recycled or subject to neutralization and recycling. 

Turkmenistan is directing efforts to develop the oil and petrochemical industry by developing new deposits, increasing the volume of minerals, introducing innovative technologies for processing raw materials and applying methods of non-waste processing of petrochemical products. Thus, compliance with environmental requirements in the production of the petrochemical industry is of particular importance, because such an approach will allow us to leave the natural environment as a legacy to future generations.